Article Index

2.5. Pesticides

They are the toxic chemical substances which are released intentionally into our environment to kill living organisms (insects, herbs, fungus, bacteria, etc.). Pesticides control or kill organism through a variety of mechanism, including the inhibition of biological processes such as photosynthesis, mitosis, cell division, enzyme function, growth; interference with the synthesis of pigments, proteins or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); destruction of cell membranes; or the promotion of uncontrolled growth. The use of pesticide is as old as human civilization. The first intentional use of a pesticide is 2500BC by Sumerians. They used the sulfur compounds to kill insects. Pesticides cause contamination in the environment mainly through air, soil, water and wildlife. Pesticides not only kill target pests but also damage many other organisms that are also present in the air, soil and water. Therefore, it decreases biodiversity. Safe alternate methods like development of relatively cheaper biopesticide should be encouraged.