1.3. Intended and unintended effects

Intended effects: They are anticipated to be happened as a consequence of the introduction or inactivation of genes or DNA sequence and are tightly connected with the goal of the genetic modification. These intended modifications in the composition of a GMM, which are different in comparison to the parent and could be measured as a single compound (newly obtained protein) or change in the cellular metabolic flux.

Unintended effects: The changes in phonotypical differences between GMM and its isogenic counterpart, which are not expected from the performed gene manipulation. These unintended effects could be due to:

  • Integration of the metabolic pathways;
  • Genetic rearrangement;
  • Metabolic perturbations and pleiotropic effect;
  • Synthesis of new fusion protein.