4. Develop an Environmental Training Programme

There are a lot of Universities and Environmental Science Institutes offering Environmental Engineering and/or Environmental Science graduate programs. In addition, there are many environmental and social courses in other departments of Applied and Natural Sciences Institutes and Social Faculties such as Departments of Landscape Architecture, Urban and City Planning, Public and Administrative Sciences, Geography, Biology, Sociology, Psychology, Agriculture and Fisheries.

Thus, enough experts are working at state and private organizations, related with waste management. But everybody that attempts at building a successful waste management plan should answer the following questions.

• What is the solid waste management hierarchy?

• Is recycling worthwhile?

• If there is plenty of landfill space, why should I recycle?

• What costs more, recycling or throwing trash away?

• What is the relationship between global warming and waste recycling?

• How do the municipal solid waste generation and recycling rates compare between the countries?

• How does recycling save energy?

• What are the most common recycled materials?

• What products are taking up the most space in landfills?

• What kinds of materials in my trash are hazardous?

• How should I separate recyclable materials?

• How can I start a recycling program in my area?

• Where can I take these materials to be recycled?

• What happens after putting them outside?

• How can I find information materials to encourage participation?

A training strategy may be an instrument for raising environmental awareness of society and it should describe methodologies for environmental education, explain how it affects creative thinking and behaviour change, provide criteria for choosing materials, as well as links to background information on various environmental topics. Other instruments are teacher programs or student research. Kids and teachers should learn more about how to protect our environment and our planet and think about answers of the questions above. Kids and teachers programs should be accompanied by educational materials, such as books, videos, and other links.

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Ashes automatically being carried by conveyors in a solid-waste treatment

Organic waste is produced wherever there is human habitation. The main forms of organic waste are household food waste, agricultural waste, human and animal waste. In industrialised countries, the amount of organic waste produced is increasing dramatically each year. Although many gardening enthusiasts compost some of their kitchen and garden waste, much of the household waste goes into landfill sites and is often the most hazardous waste. The organic waste component of landfill is broken down by microorganisms to form a liquid leachate, which contains bacteria, rotting matter and, perhaps, chemical contaminants from the landfill. This leachate can present a serious hazard if reach a watercourse or enter the water table. Digesting organic matter in landfills also generates a large quantity of methane, which is a harmful greenhouse gas. Human organic waste is usually pumped to a treatment plant where it is treated, and then the effluent enters a watercourse or is deposited directly into the sea.

Companies and institutions in developing countries deal with organic waste in different ways. In fact, the word ‘waste’ is often an inappropriate term for organic matter that may be usefully employed. In most developing countries, materials and resources must be used in their full potential, and this need has propagated a culture of reuse, repair and recycling. Many developing countries have a whole sector of recyclers, scavengers and collectors that salvage ‘waste’ material and reclaim it for further use.

Places where large quantities of waste are created, usually major cities, have inadequate facilities for dealing with this waste; so much of it is either left to rot on the streets, or is collected and dumped on open sites near the city borders. These countries have few environmental controlling institutions that can prevent such practices.

There are various uses of organic waste. Organic waste is often employed in soil improvement, animal raising and as a source of energy.

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