1. Introduction

The new EU 2020 strategy for waste legislation sets a new 50 per cent recycling to be coupled with EU funding investment, so that the new member states will be evolved into real recycling societies within a decade.

Waste minimization is one of the most important world problems of our age and has been placed at the top of the solid waste management hierarchy of issues that have to be solved urgently. In the meantime, organisations attempting at finding solutions of the problem have thoroughly considered business risks in recycling and reuse of waste.

Solution to the problem involves two basic operations: source reduction and recycling. Recycling preserves environmental sources and prevents materials from entering into the waste stream. Great efforts are being made by the European Commission and European countries to assess the costs of material recycling and to compare them to other methods of waste management, such as landfill, incineration, composting, and others. The comparison of the results of the two methods shows that material recycling has the strongest environmental benefits.

Benefits and income of both situations are also considered in the business risk assessment. Recycling facilities have economic, environmental, social and ecological advantages besides their benefits of reducing quantities of waste that have to be disposed to landfills. Recycling of waste prolongs the life span of sanitary landfills and reduces environmental pollution. In addition, there are many manufacturers that use recycled materials instead of fresh raw materials.

The organisations dealing with waste can start by analysing and finding solutions to the following problems firstly and then proceeding with their business.

The following problems with management of municipal waste have been identified:

• Society's insufficient awareness about environmental problems.

• Insufficient separation of household waste.

• Lack of instruments for separation of solid waste.

• No charge for storage of mixed municipal waste.

• Lack of a uniform system for observation of the municipal waste generated.

• Very low level of selective storage of municipal waste.

• Lack of penalties for local governments that fail to meet their legal obligations.

• Lack of waste recycling/reduction programs.

• Insufficient treatment of leachate;

• Lack of systematic tests of waste content.

• Lack of markets for waste recycling and reuse.

• Lack of foundation for waste management.

• Lack of sanitary landfills; due to the low cost of unsanitary landfill, the costs of recycling/reduction/reuse plants are very high according to the unsanitary landfills.

Problems with management of waste oil

• Insufficient system for collection of waste oil from small and medium companies and households.

• Lack of organized places for storage of waste oil generated in sea accidents.

Problems with disposal of batteries

• Lack of information about batteries, their types and environmental effects.

• Insufficient countrywide system for collection of small batteries from households.

Problems with medical waste

• Lack of efficient systems for management of medical waste.

• Lack of a system for monitoring of the amount of medical waste generated.

• No countrywide system for collection of expired pills from households.

• Lack of awareness of the effects of medical waste.

Problems with explosive waste

Lack of a program for explosive waste management.

LO9 1

Mechanical equipment in a solid-waste treatment system

Solutions for general problems mentioned above:

• Development of educational programs in environmental studies.

• Selective collection of waste.

• Development of recyclable products.

• Development of new waste management program for reducing, recycling and reusing of waste.

• Preparation of a source separation plan.

• Increasing the targets for not recyclable products.

• Finding of new foundations for sanitary landfills and decreasing the cost of landfilling.

• Closing unsanitary landfills.

• Elimination of illegal waste dumps.

• Building of reuse/recycle market.

• Charging the storage for mixed municipal waste.

• Decreasing the quantity of municipal waste that is subject to biodegradation.

• Development of a waste management plan for household hazardous materials, batteries, medical waste, explosive waste, and waste oil.

• Collection of data and planning a strategy to decrease the quantity of total stored waste in the coming years.

• Increasing the energy recovery from waste.

• Integration of the waste disposal regulations with the EU standards.